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Re: [ba-ohs-talk] OHS & the "now" enterprises, incl. CITRIS Kickoff

Henry,    (01)

Relative to "Augmenting Big-Time", yesterday, I attended a CITRIS
kickoff meeting at UC Berkeley. FYI, the following link is a 7.3 MB
powerpoint slide presentation. Notice Prof. Yoo's "Type A, B, C"
nomenclature for Reseacher Networking Needs (A), Production like
Networking Needs (B), and Both Networking Needs (C) for Societal-Scale
>    (02)

Also, I met and volunteered to help the new CITRIS director (Ruzena
Bajcsy) with the use of collaborative e-mail services for writing white
papers for more grants, etc. So is there anyone else interested in
helping with the "bootstrapping process" for developing Societal-Scale
Applications? If so, then    (03)

Since the inception of California Institutes for Science and Innovation,
the planning of  high-speed research networks has made a significant
progress, and currently this effort is  through cooperation between
CENIC, UC, and collaborating campuses. In northern California,  CITRIS
has made plans for a very high-speed network to support high-bandwidth
applications  and experimental research needs    (04)

Also, in southern California, CalIT2 has led LambdaGrid efforts in the
San Diego and Irvine area.  Joining CENIC?s forward-looking Optical
Networking Initiative, 4 CISIs have formed a  technical working group to
address the research networking issues.    (05)

UCOP has now asked for the four Institutes to create, on a short time
scale, a white paper on  what the driving applications are that require
such a network and what needs to be funded besides what CENIC is already
doing at the State level. There was a very successful workshop in
Southern California led by CalIT2 director Larry Smarr on February 5.
This workshop is the
second in the series amplifying the success, working towards the common
collaborative goal. We expect many more workshops to follow.    (06)

oes any body affiliated with the Bootstrap Institute    (07)

More insights about "Augmenting Big-Time" based on:    (08)

1) Waves of the Internet,
2) Network Services in Context of Pervasive Mobile Internet,
3) a recent workshop (March 12-14, 2002) report on New Visions for
Large-Scale Networks: Research and Applications, and
4) Visions of Pervasive (Ubiquitous) Computing, "Smart Dust" (Autonomous
sensing and communication in a cubic millimeter) and why the notion of
being "online" versus "offline" will completely disappear, including the
Interplanetary Internet and India's wireless initiative.    (09)

Platform Evolution (see pg. 3)
< http://azalea.ics.agh.edu.pl/projects/6winit/docs/CEEMAS2001.ppt>    (010)

   * An Internet of Computers
   * An Internet of things that embed computers
   * An Internet of things (MEMS)
     1) Infrastructureless networking:
     Ad-hoc disposable networks; dynamically forming, self-organizing
     hierarchy; and precision geo-location and ultra-wideband radios to
     support sensornets;    (011)

     2) Adaptive networking:
     Network-aware distributed applications, proactive self-tuning
     systems for ubiquitous computing, and custom channel building for
     large-scale  network systems.    (012)

"Many key applications in Government, academia, and industry have
required far greater computing capability than was available at that
time, and that remains true today. These applications can be subdivided
into Grand Challenges (GC) and National Challenges (NC). The Grand
Challenges are those efforts that focus on computation intensive
problems in science and engineering with broad economic and scientific
impacts, whose solution can be advanced by HPCC techniques and
resources. Typical examples of GCs are computational structural biology
and global climate modeling. National Challenges on the other hand focus
on  efforts that are information intensive, have broad and direct impact
on the nation’s competitiveness and well-being of its citizens, and that
can benefit from the application of HPCC technologies and resources.
Some examples of NCs are digital libraries, electronic commerce,
education and life-long learning, and healthcare."
< http://www.itrd.gov/iwg/pca/lsn/lsn-workshop-12mar01/ >
>, including additional publications index
< http://www.itrd.gov/pubs/index.html >    (013)

For example, "The GriPhyN (Grid Physics Network) collaboration is a team
of experimental physicists and information technology (IT) researchers
who plan to implement the first Petabyte-scale computational
environments for data intensive science in the 21st century. Driving the
project are unprecedented requirements for geographically dispersed
extraction of complex scientific information from very large collections
of measured data. To meet these requirements, which arise initially from
the four physics experiments involved in this project but will also be
fundamental to science and commerce in the 21st century, GriPhyN will
deploy computational environments called Petascale Virtual Data Grids
(PVDGs) that meet the data-intensive computational needs of a diverse
community of thousands of scientists spread across the globe."
< http://www.griphyn.org/info/info.html >    (014)

Visions of Pervasive (Ubiquitous) Computing    (015)

          “ … make a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so
          natural, that we use it without even thinking about
          it.    (016)

          “Ubiquitous (pervasive) computing is roughly the
          opposite of virtual reality. Where virtual reality
          puts people inside a computer-generated world,
          ubiquitous computing forces the computer to live out
          here in the world with people.” – Mark Weiser, the
          late Chief Technology Officer, Xerox PARC
          >    (017)

          "The sensor web allows you to make measurements on a
          large scale, like in remote sensing, but with the
          sensitivity of in situ instruments,"- Kevin Delin,
          NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) 2000
          >    (018)

          "While America is on high-alert for more terrorist
          attacks and is re-booting its economy, planet earth
          will don an electronic skin. It will use the
          Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its
          sensations. This skin is already being stitched
          together. It consists of millions of embedded
          electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure
          gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones,
          glucose sensors, EKGs, electroencephalographs. These
          will probe, monitor, and safeguard cities and
          endangered species, the atmosphere, our ships,
          highways and fleets of trucks, our conversations,
          our bodies--even our dreams.    (019)

          There will be a great need for trillions of such
          telemetric systems, each with a microprocessor brain
          and a cognitive radio. Consultant Ernst & Young
          predicts that by 2010, there will be 10,000
          telemetric devices for every human being on the
          planet. They'll be in constant contact with one
          another. Certainly there will be no central
          intelligence. But many scientists believe that some
          qualities of self-awareness will emerge once the Net
          is sensually enhanced and emulates the complexity of
          the human brain.    (020)

          Sensuality is only one force pushing the Net toward
          intelligence. An eerie symbiosis of human and
          machine effort is also starting to evolve. The
          Internet creates a channel for thousands of
          programmers around the world to collaborate on
          software development and debugging. That has
          produced an evolutionary leap in software: The
          ''open source'' movement that spawned the Linux
          operating system. The Linux world behaves as an
          ecosystem--''a self-correcting spontaneous order,''
          as open-source pioneer Eric Raymond describes it in
          his Net manifesto, The Cathedral and the Bazaar.
          Through collaboration, this community can push past
          the technical barriers to machine intelligence."    (021)

"Over the next ten or so years, this notion of being "online" versus
"offline" will completely disappear, because of:    (022)

   * The computing industry moving to molecular-based computer circuitry
   * The breaking up of the desktop computer's functions into a myriad
     of tiny gadgetry that humans will wear or have embedded throughout
     their living spaces and work environments—and ultimately even their
     bodies via nanotechnology
   * The maturation of ultra wideband wireless technologies that link
     all of these sensors, gadgets, satellites, computers, and grids
   * The continued development and extension of the earth-based portion
     of the Global Information Infrastructure (GII), especially the
     so-called last mile
   * The coming revolution in near-space (earth-to-moon) information
     infrastructure—quadrupling of satellites by 2010, then vast waves
     of nano/picosatellites—that provide real-time wireless coverage
     across the entire planet
   * The migration of vast portions of human commerce, social,
     educational, religious and political activity to the Internet and
     World Wide Web, which come to encompass all current personal and
     mass communication media.    (023)

In other words, we go from today's limited-access Internet to an Evernet
with which we will remain in a state of constant connectivity.  We will
progress from a day-to-day reality in which we must choose to go online
to one in which we must choose to go offline.  This is not some distant
fantasy world.  Almost all the technology we need for the Evernet exists
today.  It mostly is just a matter of achieving connectivity.    (024)

The rise of the Evernet will be humanity's greatest achievement to date
and will be universally recognized as our most valued planetary asset or
collective good.  Downtime, or loss of connectivity, becomes the
standard, time-sensitive definition of a national security crisis, and
protection of the Evernet becomes the preeminent security task of
governments around the world. Ruling elites will rise and fall based on
their security policies toward, and the political record on, the care
and feeding of the Evernet, whose health will be treated by mass media
as having the same broad human interest and import as the weather
(inevitably eclipsing even that)."
< http://www.nwc.navy.mil/newrulesets/LifeAfterDODth.htm >    (025)

The Interplanetary Internet
Architecture and Key Technical Concepts
<  http://www.ipnsig.org/reports/INET-Tutorial-5June01.ppt >    (026)

The Next Frontier in Mobility
<  http://www.ipnsig.org/reports/INETPlenary-06June01.ppt >    (027)

Overview of specific in-situ sensor technologies, including SensorML,
and networking in the extreme.
<  http://lternet.edu/technology/sensors/technologies.htm >
< http://vast.uah.edu/SensorML/SensorML_0601.ppt >    (028)

India's Wireless Initiative and Ultrawideband (UWB) - an
Infrastructureless, Multi-hop, Ad-hoc, Wireless Networking Technology
India is planning to skip wireless 3G technology because of the
associated costs and delays for building the necessary infrastructure,
so will they chose an infrastructureless 5G technology like UWB instead?    (029)

< http://www.mit.gov.in/tifac/Finalwireless-initiative.pdf >    (030)

When Ultra-wideband (UWB) radios with opto-electronic integration
(i.e.,"smart dust") are under software control, they can dynamically
trade data rate, power consumption, and range. This type of flexibility
is what is needed to enable the power-constrained portable computing
applications of the future. This form of peer-to-peer collaborative
architecture and interaction over a wireless LAN is sometimes
characterized as an self-organizing and self-healing ad-hoc networks
with an inherent robustness to multi-path fading, and a low probability
of intercept and detection for jamming due to the nature of the short
(sub-nanosecond) impulse. Since each node is mobile, it needs to connect
to the network dynamically and in an arbitrary fashion. All
participating nodes may act as routers, when they forward data packets
on behalf of other nodes on the network. They also take part in
connection discovery and route maintenance to other nodes on the
network. Sub-nets can form when a larger group of nodes sub-divides into
two or more smaller groups that are separated by distance or poor RF
propagation conditions.    (031)

UWB is only becoming commercially viable now through decreased costs and
recent advancements in chip development, the evolution of the
marketplace, and FCC recent approval (2/14/02). What is driving UWB into
the consumer market is the ability to render UWB circuitry into CMOS
technology. Therefore as CMOS scales say from .25 to .18 to .13 micron
so does the UWB circuitry. As a result some call UWB “Moore’s Law
Radio”. Up until a few years ago the circuitry to implement UWB was
power and form factor constrained. With UWB being done in CMOS this is
no longer the case. As a matter of fact we will see smaller and smaller
UWB devices over the next few years.    (032)

Other advantageous features of UWB are penetration and signal power. In
terms of penetration, for instance, an unfiltered pulse of 200
picoseconds duration, when applied through a Fourier formula,
demonstrates signal energy throughout the spectrum between DC
and 5 GHz. Obviously this is not a perfect square wave representation
because the pulse is subject to some coloring from the antenna - and
antenna technology is an extremely important facet of UWB technology -
but with proper antenna implementations the distribution of energy is
spread fairly evenly across the spectrum. A UWB receiver detects the
presence of the energy of the pulse in time, not at specific
frequencies, so absorption of specific carriers such as at 1.8GHz or
2.4GHz has little effect, so long as about 50% of the spectral energy
density of the pulse penetrates whatever obstacles lie in the
transmission path. Absorption at any one particular frequency does
little to affect the integrity of the actual pulse.    (033)

In terms of signal power, the simplest conceptual demonstration would be
to think of Morse code. Imagine you hook up a microphone to a one-watt
transmitter and start speaking into it. Your voice is being used to
generate a complex modulation onto an analog carrier. That same complex
modulation must be received and de-modulated at the receiver. In order
to recover your voice at the receiver, integrity of both the modulation
and the carrier must be maintained. Although the carrier is capable of
going great distances, the modulation is much more fragile and degrades
over distance quickly, so you might be able to recover the voice
modulated signal
a mile or so away. Now, take the microphone off of the one-watt
transmitter and instead attach a Morse code oscillator to the same
one-watt transmitter. All you need to recover is the dots and dashes,
(in essence, is the signal present or not?). These simple pulses can be
detected at increased distances by a factor of over ten relative to a
modulated carrier. In Ultra Wideband, we might radiate a 200 picoseconds
(.2 billionths of a second) pulse of one-watt energy. At any given
frequency between DC and 5 GHz the demonstrated energy of the pulse is
beneath the noise floor, hence peaceful co-existence with carrier
technologies. (To calculate the energy take 1 Watt and divide by the
frequency spread. In this case 1 watt divided by 5,000,000,000. = Noise
Floor).    (034)

UWB operates on microwatts of power, less than 1/1000 the power required
by conventional cellular phones. UWB also possesses geographic
positioning accuracy to within centimeters, far more accurate than
satellite GPS. Because UWB operates in what is known as the "noise
floor," UWB signals are almost impossible to detect and have been used
by the Secret Service and a very small circle of similar environments
for years as perhaps the most secure form of wireless communication
available.    (035)

Intel's Analysis of UWB Technology for Short- or Medium-Range Wireless
< http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/q22001/articles/art_4.htm >    (036)

Presentation by Jeff Foerster, Intel Architecture Labs
< http://www.ieee.or.com/Archive/uwb.pdf >    (037)

Theoretical limits of 60 GHz UWB chips in CMOS
>    (038)

Smart Dust
"The goal of the Smart Dust project is to build a self-contained,
millimeter-scale sensing and communication platform for a massively
distributed sensor network.  This device will be around the size of a
grain of sand and will contain (TinyOS) sensors, computational ability,
bi-directional wireless communications, and a power supply, while being
inexpensive enough to deploy by the hundreds.  The science and
engineering goal of the project is to build a complete, complex system
in a tiny volume using state-of-the art technologies (asopposed to
futuristic technologies), which will require evolutionary and
revolutionary advances in integration, miniaturization, and energy
management.  We forsee many applications for this technology:    (039)

   * Weather/seismological monitoring on Mars
   * Internal spacecraft monitoring
   * Land/space comm. networks
   * Chemical/biological sensors
   * Weapons stockpile monitoring
   * Defense-related sensor networks
   * Inventory Control
   * Product quality monitoring
   * Smart office spaces
   * Sports - sailing, balls"    (040)

< http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/~warneke/SmartDust/index.html>    (041)

Video Semaphore Decoding for Free-Space Optical Communication
>    (042)

In summary, UC Berkeley "Smart Dust" developer Prof. Pister says:    (043)

          "In 2010 MEMS sensors will be everywhere, and
          sensing virtually everything. Scavenging power from
          sunlight, vibration, thermal gradients, and
          background RF, sensors motes will be immortal,
          completely self contained, single chip computers
          with sensing, communication, and power supply built
          in. Entirely solid state, and with no natural decay
          processes, they may well survive the human race.
          Descendants of dolphins may mine them from arctic
          ice and marvel at the extinct technology."
          http://robotics.EECS.Berkeley.EDU/~pister//SmartDust/in2010>    (044)

Henry K van Eyken wrote:    (045)

> When we read that General Electric has put in place a "digital nervous
> system that connects anything and everything involved in the company's
> business: IT systems, factories and employees, as well as suppliers,
> customers and products." And when we further read in the same article
> that "GE's senior managers have such a constantly updated view of
> their
> enterprise" and that"Their screens differ according to their
> particular
> business," one does get animpression that what is described here is
> Doug's OHS - unless clear distinguishing features spring to mind.
> Having put together "Augmenting Big-Time" (
> http://www.fleabyte.org/eic-8.html ) I feel I have failed to clearly
> demonstrate the distinguishing features and potential applicability of
> the OHS other than that it is more textual than datastream, and
> concomittant with that, more interactive in an analog sense. It
> appears
> to me that the OHS is lagging in responsiveness to the digital nervous
> system described above, but that it has the merit of permitting faster
> deliberation tthrough document-sharing between people. This suggests
> that it is well to attempt to define clearly the particular niches for
> the OHS and to design an OHS tie-in to financial,
> technological/industrial, and scientific datastreams.
> Looking at the world from my place here out in the sticks, it seems to
> me that much has changed since the Stanford Colloquium two years ago.
> I
> very much welcome enlightening comments on this subject, preferably in
> a
> form I can attach to the aricle, "Augmentation Big-Time." It may be
> well
> that particular attention be paid to response times between electronic
> and neural parties and, hence, to particular applications of the OHS
> in
> the worldly scheme of things; say, in education, in design work, in
> strategic planning, &c.
> I believe this topic is very much worthy of a good discussion on this
> ba-ohs forum.
> Henry    (046)

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